Laryngology Curriculum

In an attempt to coordinate ALA’s activities with the AAO-HNSF committees, ABOto Maintenance of Certification (MOC) activities, the academy’s resident curriculum, and update our Laryngology Fellowship Guidelines, an Ad Hoc committee was created at the January 2017 Winter Council Meeting.  The charge of the Laryngology Education Advisory Committee (EAC) is to coordinate and advance education in Laryngology through collaboration with resident, fellowship, and Board certification curricula.

The EAC is composed of ALA Active and Post-Graduate Members as well as senior leadership in an advisory capacity.  A comprehensive laryngology curriculum has been developed.  Educational content for this curriculum will be added in an ongoing basis.


Normal Anatomy and Physiology



    1. Basic anatomy of the larynx (intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles, sensory and motor nerves, cartilages, vascular supply and lymphatic drainage)
    2. Advanced anatomy of the larynx (intralaryngeal neuroanatomy, cricoarytenoid joint anatomy and motion, surgical anatomy for phonosurgery and vocal fold injection)
    3. Membranes (thyrohyoid, cricothyroid, conus elasticus, quadrangular membrane)
    4. Morphological structure of the vocal fold (body and cover layers)
    5. Microstructure of the lamina propria layer (extracellular matrix, fibrillary proteins and arrangement, glycosaminoglycans, cells)
    6. Immunology of the larynx
    7. Vocal ligament

Esophagus (UES, Body, LES)

Trachea and upper airways

Embryology of the larynx, trachea, and esophagus (Normal development, Vocal fold lamina propria maturation)

Congenital anomalies and surgical implications (TEF, Laryngeal cleft, Glottic web, Subglottic stenosis, Tracheobronchomalacia


  1. Phonation
  2. Pitch control
  3. Loudness control
  4. Vocal register/professional voice
  5. Role of vocal tract/resonance/formants


  1. Oral phase
  2. Pharyngeal phas
  3. Esophageal Phase
  4. Neural pathways
  5. Age and swallow function


  1. Acute
  2. Chronic


Physical Examination/Evaluation

  1. In-office laryngoscopy: rigid transoral and flexible techniques
  2. Laryngeal Videostroboscopy
  3. In-office Bronchoscopy and Airway assessment
  4. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG)
  5. Perceptual voice evaluation
  6. Acoustic analysis
  7. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES)
  8. Transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE)
  9. Modified barium swallow study (MBSS)
  10. Principles of acoustic analysis and vocal function testing
  11. Imaging studies ofthe larynx, trachea and esophagus (CT/MRI/Ultrasound/Fluoroscopy)
  12. Principles and interpretation of pulmonary function testing
  13. Principles and interpretation of pH and impedance testing
  14. Principles and interpretation of high resolution manometry (HRM)

Diseases and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms


  1. Laryngitis (Bacterial, Viral, Fungal)
  2. Pharyngitis (Bacterial, Viral, Fungal)
  3. Tracheitis
  4. Esophagitis (Fungal, bacterial, viral)


  1. Laryngitis (Acute, Chronic: Reinke’s, LPR, XRT-induced)
  2. Laryngopharyngeal reflux
  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis


  1. Vocal fold hemorrhage
  2. Nodeles and Polyps
  3. Fibrous masses, pseudocysts, and other lesions
  4. Granulomas
  5. Reinke’s edema


  1. External laryngeal trauma
  2. Internal laryngeal trauma
  3. Posterior glottic scar
  4. Glottic webs

Airway stenosis

  1. Supraglottic stenosis
  2. Glottic stenosis (e.g. autoimmune/non-traumatic))
  3. Glottic stenosis
  4. Tracheal stenosis


  1. Benign (Papilloma, Leukoplakia, Vascular lesions, Chondroma, Amyloidosis, Other (sarcoid etc.))
  2. Malignant (Dysplasia, Squamous cell carcinoma, Adenoid cystic carcinoma, Melanoma, Other (Verrucous, chondrosarcoma, etc)


  1. Sulcus vocalis
  2. Presbylarynx
  3. Intracordal cysts
  4. Saccular cyst
  5. Laryngocele (Internal, External, Mixed)


  1. Vocal fold paralysis or paresis (Unilateral, Bilateral, Synkinesis)
  2. Spasmodic dysphonia (Adductor, Abductor, Mixed, Vocal tremor, Dystonic spread)
  3. Functional voice disorders (MTD, Other)
  4. Laryngospasm/Vocal cord dysfunction/Paradoxical vocal fold motion
  5. Chronic cough (Typical etiologies: sinonasal, reflux, pulmonary, neurogenic, PVFM)
  6. Treatment algorithm(s)
  7. Irritable larynx
  8. Related dystonias of the head and neck (e.g. palatal myoclonus, oromandibular, dystonia, hemi-facial spasm, blepharospasm, etc.)
  9. Effects of stroke and neurodegenerative disease on voice, airway swallowing (e.g. Parkinson’s Disease, Stroke, OPMD, ALS etc.)

Systemic diseases with effects on voice, airway, swallowing

  1. Sarcoidosis
  2. Amyloidosis
  3. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and related vasculitis
  4. Tuberculosis
  5. Relapsing polychondritis
  6. Scleroderma
  7. Other


  1. CP achalasia
  2. Esophageal webs
  3. Esophageal dysmotility
  5. Landmark literature
  6. Mechanism
  7. Standard and alternative treatment approaches
  8. Achalasia
  9. Barrett’s esophagitis
  10. Esophageal diverticula/li>
  11. Esophageal cancer
  12. Esophageal perforation
  13. Dysphagia after chemoradiation therapy
  14. Procedures/Skills

Behavioral management

  1. Voice rest
  2. Voice therapy
  3. Perioperative voice carePrinciples of professional voice care

Medical management

  1. Steroids
  2. Anti-reflux medication
  3. Botulinum toxin
  4. Other (including neuromodulator therapy for cough, irritable larynx)

Swallow therapy

Surgical Skills

Micro Direct Laryngoscopy

  1. Tools (Laryngoscope/microinstruments)
  2. Microflap surgery
  3. Laser surgery
  4. Suspension surgical laryngoscopy
  5. Benign lesions (e.g. papillomas)
  6. Malignant lesions
  7. ELS cordectomy classification

Lasers in Laryngology (Physics, types, indications)

Esophagoscopy/Esophagology (Rigid, Flexible)

Bronchoscopy (Rigid, Flexible)

Open Surgical management

  1. External surgical approaches
  2. Laryngofissure
  3. Thyroplasty types 1-4
  4. Surgery for laryngeal trauma and fracture

Medialization procedures

  1. Vocal fold Injection
  2. Type 1 thyroplasty
  3. Arytenoid adduction/repositioning
  4. Reinnervation

Surgery for dysphagia and chronic aspiration

  1. Esophageal stenosis
  2. Treatment of CP dysfunction (Myotomy, Botox, dilation)
  3. Zenker’s diverticulum
  4. Treatment of CRT dysphagia
  5. Epiglottoplasty
  6. Hypopharyngoplasty
  7. Other (Laryngectomy etc.)

Airway procedures

  1. Management of difficult airway
  2. Tracheostomy
  3. Endoscopic surgery for airway stenosis (+/- laser)
  4. Open surgery
  5. Tracheal resection
  6. Cricotracheal resection
  7. Laryngotracheoplasty

Voice and swallow rehabilitation after total laryngectomy

  1. Stomaplasty
  2. Tracheo-esophageal puncture/management of TEP dysfunction
  3. Botox injection for Hyperfunctional TEP Voice
  4. Cricopharyngeal Myotomy